8 : Stone Road
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Stone Street is a short street in the Financial District of Manhattan in New York City. It runs in two sections between Whitehall Street in the west and Hanover Square in the east. The street originally ran as one continuous roadway from Whitehall Street to Hanover Square, but the section between Broad Street and Coenties Alley was eliminated in 1980 to make way for the Goldman Sachs building at 85 Broad Street. The one-block-long western section between Whitehall and Broad Streets carries vehicular traffic, while the two-block-long eastern section between Coenties Alley and Hanover Square is a pedestrian zone.
Stone Street is one of New York's oldest streets, incorporating two 17th-century roads in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam. In 1658 it became the first cobbled street in New Amsterdam. Following the British conquest of the colony, the street was called Duke Street before being renamed Stone Street, for its cobblestone paving, in 1794. Many of the early structures around Stone Street were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1835, after which Stone Street was redeveloped with stores and lofts for dry-goods merchants and importers. Following many decades of neglect, Stone Street was restored in the late 20th century and the eastern section became a restaurant area.
The block from Broad Street to Coenties Alley was closed in 1980 and removed from the street grid. The former path of Stone Street is preserved in the curved lobby of the 85 Broad Street skyscraper, which occupies the site. The public corridor contains a stone floor as well as LED "arches" extending above the corridor. In addition, remnants of curbs were placed where Stone and Broad Streets historically intersected. The corridor exists because, when 85 Broad Street was being constructed, its developers had wanted to completely remove that section of Stone Street, but the city government had opposed the removal. Both remaining sections of the street are preserved as part of the New Amsterdam street grid, a New York City designated landmark. Outside the eastern facade of 85 Broad Street is a plaque showing a map of Stone Street's historic path.
Stone Street is one of New York's oldest streets, having been built not long after the Dutch West India Company established New Amsterdam in 1624. It contains parts of two colonial streets: Breuers Straet (literally "Brewers Street"), from Whitehall to Broad Streets, and Hoogh Straet (literally "High Street"), from Broad to Hanover Square.[a] The streets formed a longer road running from Peck Slip Ferry at what is now South Street Seaport; they were originally connected by a bridge spanning an inlet in the middle of Broad Street. The original street surface is about 6.5 to 7 feet (2.0 to 2.1 m) beneath the modern street.
Breuers Straet (renamed Straet van de Graft in 1655 and Brouwer Straet by 1668) was named after the breweries along the street. David T. Valentine subsequently wrote that, from the occupations of the residents, "it is to be inferred that this was one of the best streets of the town". In March 1657, residents of Breuers Straet filed a petition to pave the street with cobblestone, funding the project with their own money. The petition was approved and, in 1658, Breuers Straet became the first cobbled street in New Amsterdam.
High Street was called Duke Street, for the Duke of York, during most of the 18th century. The street surface was graded in 1771. A census of residents in 1789 found that High Street was home to an attorney, rabbi, shopkeepers, maritime industry workers, and craftsmen. Following the American Revolutionary War, New Yorkers sought to change the names of locales and structures that reflected British rule. The section west of Broad Street was already known as Stone Street, but the city's common council approved extending the name to Duke Street as well. Subsequently, Duke Street was renamed Stone Street in 1794. The street was also widened during this time.
At the beginning of the 19th century, after Lower Manhattan was expanded via landfill, the area became increasingly commercial and many residences on and around Stone Street were subdivided. Some landowners also built vaults under Stone Street's sidewalk. In 1811, the common council approved petitions to widen Stone Street, and the street was expanded by about 4 feet (1.2 m) for $150,000. By the 1820s, some structures on Stone Street were being built specifically for commercial use; these were likely made of brick with brownstone trimming. At the time, the street's sidewalk contained brownstone slabs and bluestone-tiled curbs. In addition, there were complaints the street was dirty, as the wooden sewers frequently needed to be replaced or fixed. A brick and stone sewer was authorized in 1830, and funds to build the new sewers and repave the street were issued in 1831.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, two skyscrapers were completed at the western end of Stone Street, although neither structure had its main address on the street. The 32-story structure at 2 Broadway was completed in 1959 at the northeastern corner of Stone and Whitehall Streets, while the 23-story structure at 1 Whitehall Street was completed in 1962 at the southeastern corner of the same intersection. Financial firm Lehman Brothers purchased the site bounded by Broad, South William, and Pearl Streets and Coenties Alley during the late 1960s. The firm wanted to close Stone Street to make way for a 38-story headquarters. The site was cleared, but amid a poor real estate market, the building plan was scrapped in 1970 and the vacant lot became parking space. In subsequent years, the vacant block of Stone Street had become neglected and was accumulating trash.
Archeologists started excavating the vacant Lehman site, the Stadt Huys Block, in 1979 after development resumed on the site. The following year, the site's owner Galbreath-Ruffin started developing the 30-story tower at 85 Broad Street. To make way for the skyscraper, the block of Stone Street from Broad Street to Coenties Alley was closed in 1980 and subsequently removed. Following pressure from the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) and New York City Planning Commission (CPC), the building's footprint was relocated to preserve Stone Street's path. That structure was completed in 1983. Some structures were also demolished or reduced in size during this time.
By the 1990s, Stone Street was rundown, and developer Tony Goldman had bought several buildings on the street, intending to restore the street's character. In 1996, the LPC designated the eastern portion of the street and the surrounding buildings as the Stone Street Historic District. The historic district was also added to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1999. The LPC, city agencies, and Downtown Alliance collectively contributed $1.8 million toward the renovation of Stone Street, while the street's property owners donated $170,000 for the restoration of basement vaults beneath the sidewalk. Old-style lampposts and about 23,000 cobblestones were installed to change the street's character to attract commercial investment. The work was completed in 2000, and the eastern section of Stone Street became a busy restaurant district during the following decade.
The site between Broad Street and Coenties Alley is occupied by 85 Broad Street, a skyscraper completed in 1983. The structure was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) and is 32 stories tall.
This narrow cobblestone street in the heart of the Financial District was the first street paved with stone in the city, back when it was a small Dutch farming and trading colony called New Amsterdam. It was originally paved in 1658, when Wall Street was still a wooden wall built as a protective barrier at the northern edge of New Amsterdam.
The quest to develop antibiotics begins! Senku Ishigami draws up the road towards their development, opting to create a sulfa drug with certainty, rather than a penicillin by chance. The first step is obtaining iron.
Just outside the village, Chrome and Kohaku get pumped about working with Senku to cure Ruri. Senku plans to cure Ruri and win over the village by creating the antibiotic. He explains they can take the biological route by making penicillin or go the stone route and create sulfa drugs from rocks.
Confused, Kohaku asks how they can make medicine from those things. Senku replies that making penicillin from moss is the more famous route, but its too risky. Chrome agrees they should go the stone route because Senku knows it can work with the right amount of manpower. Senku shows them both the roadmap that will allow them to skip two million years straight to the cure-all drug.
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